All roses need a few essential to survive and they are;
a) Good drainage (they resent water logged soil)
b) An open sunny site (although a few will tolerate partial
c) Not too exposed a site (high winds can cause wind rock
thus loosening the roots)
d) A loamy soil containing plenty of manure for water retention.
e) They are tolerant of lime, but do better in a slightly acid soil with ph. of 6.5
Prepare the planting bed at least one month prior to planting out by digging in copious amounts of well-rotted manure or compost.
(Lighten heavy clay soils by digging in rotting straw.)
Plant out at any time from October to April providing weather & soil conditions are suitable.
As a guide, planting distances between plants should be as follows;
Miniature 150-200mm (6"-9")
Hybrids & Floribundas; 600-900mm (2'-3')
Standards; 900mm (3'-0")
Shrubs; 1200-1500mm (4'-5')
Climbers 2000mm (7'-0")
Excavate the hole approx 300mm deep (1'-0")
Trim and shorten the roots.
Position the plant by spreading the roots over the base of the hole, ensuring that the union of the stock and scion (crown) is just below soil level.
Backfill with a mixture of one handful of bonemeal to a two gallon bucket of peat/compost, ensuring the compost gets between the roots.
Finally firm in the plant by 'treading in' the compost around the plant, and topping off with garden soil to natural ground level.
With 'Standards' set a stake in the hole prior to planting ensuring that it will be buried at least 400-500mm deep (15"-18") after backfilling.
'Tie in' with a rubber 'tree tie'
note; the stake should be long enough to reach the top of the flower stem.
With Climbers & Ramblers 'tie in' to suspended wires, trellis or pergola posts.
Ensure 'rose beds' do not become over compacted, regularly loosen soil with a border fork, working in a granular/powder fertiliser (to recommended dosage) as you proceed.
Keep the rose beds free of weeds.
Remove excess buds while the buds are small. With hybrid teas, any group of buds forming below the terminal (crown) bud should be removed.
Dead head as soon as flowers have faded. Cut back to a 'outward' facing bud and a new bud should form.
Apply a mulch and 1oz of Sulphate of Potash around the plants in spring.
Feed at any time, and certainly when in full bloom to encourage another 'flush' of flowers.
As this is a subject in its own right it will suffice to say at this stage that roses can be propagated by seed, cuttings, and budding.
General rules appertaining to pruning are as follows;
a) All cuts should be clean by using sharp secateurs
b) All cuts should be made above and as close to an outward facing bud.
c) Dead or diseased wood should be removed as soon as it is seen, whatever the time of year.
d) Weak, damaged or crossing branches should be removed.
Most roses produce their flowers on current year growth, but true 'Ramblers', some 'Specie', 'Old', and 'Modern' roses grow on previous years growth, so it is essential you know which are which before pruning.
1) Roses that grow on current years growth can be pruned when the plants are completely dormant, or just starting into growth in the spring.
Sometimes in exposed areas it is advisable to prune back by a third in early Autumn then finish off in early Spring.
2) Roses that flower on the previous seasons growth should be pruned just after flowering.
3) 'Newly planted plants' should be pruned hard back in their first Spring.
4) Specie & old shrub roses require little pruning except to remove soft tips and